Formerly known as the British Commonwealth or simply the Commonwealth, The Commonwealth of Nations is an intergovernmental organization which developed from the former members of the British Empire. With the present 54 member states, only Rwanda and Mozambique were not members of the Empire. The framework as outlined in the Singapore Declaration guides the operation of this organization.
The current members of the Commonwealth include Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Botswana, Brunei, Cameroon, Canada, Cyprus, Dominica The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guyana, India , Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, New Zealand, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Seychelles, Sierra Lone, Singapore, Solomo Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Kingdom, Vanuatu, and Zambia. In its history, there were four member countries which were dissolved consisting of Malaya and Newfoundland; two withdrawn members including Ireland and Zimbabwe; and one suspended member which is Fiji.
At present, there are six countries applying for membership namely Algeria, Madagascar, Somaliland, South Sudan, Sudan, and Yemen. Queen Elizabeth II is the symbolic Head of the Commonwealth although she has no political power over the member-countries. The goals of the Commonwealth is founded on the principles of democracy, good governance, individual liberty, free trade, world peace, human rights, and rule of law, among others. The Commonwealth functions like an international organization more than a political association with no country exercising any control over the others.
About the Author:
Teresa is a researcher-writer who covers a wide range of topics in search of useful information.
Being an international city, London has some of the world’s most advanced transportation system. It is the center of road, rail and air networks in the United Kingdom. Despite the advancements, however, it has also retained its traditional vehicles such as the double deck buses that travel around the city.
A visit to the London Transport Museum is the best way to learn about the city’s transport heritage. Situated in the Covent Garden Piazza, its permanent location, the museum showcases old vehicles preserved since the 1920’s. From a small collection of two Victorian horse buses and a motorbus, the collection has grown to include all modes of transport such as bicycles, taxis, trams and river vessels to art (posters, films and photographs) and design works.
The museum’s main objective is to relate to visitors the evolution of the city’s transportation system from the past to the present and even up to the future. Different exhibitions are in place with themes such as public transport at war, London’s massive expansion in the 20th century and world city comparisons.
A library is also available providing valuable research materials plus a museum depot which stores more than 370,000 items not displayed at the Covent Garden building. The depot, however, is open to the public only during special events.
For this year 2013, heritage vehicle runs and other exciting events are lined up to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the London Underground entitled Tube 150. It was in January 1863 when the world’s first underground train made its first journey beneath London’s streets from Paddington to Farringdon. In its first six months alone, the train accommodated some 26,000 passengers.
Worth noting here is the fact that the London Transport Museum goes beyond merely displaying artifacts and transportation collections. Inside are shops where souvenir items such as posters, gifts, clothes, toys and vintage house ware can be purchased as well as a café and bar at the Upper Deck that offers snacks and drinks.
This popular tourist attraction is open daily starting at 10 a.m. except on Fridays which opens at 11 a.m. Individual tickets can be purchased but large groups can avail of lower fees. Guided tours are offered as well.
If visiting London is not possible, learning about this historical museum and the city’s different modes of transport can be done through its website ltmuseum.co.uk. The site provides comprehensive information covering everything you’d like to know from the history and collections to upcoming events and activities. A blog is also available where visitors can get updates on the museum’s activities, people and other valuable details.
Photo via londontown
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Any home can become the target of burglars. As such, it’s best to protect your home at all times and know what to do in case an intruder gets into your house in the middle of the night or while nobody’s home.
The door is the usual entry point so make sure this is a sturdy one and does not have a letter box. Burglars can peep through the boxes and put devices through them.
Investing in a quality and reliable alarm system should be a priority. This is a must today as burglaries continue unabated with many of them occurring in residential properties.
Before purchasing, however, be able to determine your lifestyle, needs and how much you can afford. Learn about the different types being offered by providers and the benefits of each.
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Visiting foreign countries would require travelers to observe the prevailing standards of etiquette in the place of destination. Failure to observe this could result to misunderstanding or unintentional insult to locals. England also has its specific do’s which visitors should observe while in the country.
The British have been known to maintain a stiff upper lip in their behavior. They are known for being more formal than Americans. Although there has been considerable relaxation of this formality, there are still certain standards of etiquette that need to be observed by locals and foreign visitors as well.
Visitors to England can take their cue from what they observe once they are in the country. If totally unsure of what to do, it might be best to inquire from friends and associates. A little research can go a long way before visiting the country.
The basics are rather similar to other culture’s observance of common courtesy and good manners. The three magic words consisting of please, thank you, and sorry form a large part of everyday conversation in England. Shaking of hands is an acceptable form of greeting for long-time acquaintances while kissing on the cheek is fairly common between female friends. When visiting a family, it is considered good manners to bring a gift either in the form of flowers, wine, or candy.
Waiting in line for one’s turn is seriously observed in England. People using the escalator should always stay on the right side to permit people coming from the other direction to pass on the left side. Tipping should be done in a manner that will not be interpreted as showing-off. This includes the place and the amount of the tip. People who do not drink alcohol can go to English pubs which are more like places to meet new friends rather than bars associated with drinking alcohol.
About the Author:
Teresa is a professional researcher-writer in a wide range of topics.
Using a dish to receive numerous TV channels is the preferred choice by many people these days. This option is most ideal for homeowners living outside the city center as well as those residing in the rural areas.
The direct broadcast satellite service known as DirecTV is a popular choice among homeowners in the U.S. This service broadcasts quality satellite television programming in various locations and requires the installation of a dish.
Preserving the environment is always top of mind among people and organizations worldwide concerned about the state of Mother Earth. Governments, in particular, are taking steps to ensure that their citizens and companies within their jurisdiction follow laws that will help safeguard their surroundings.
In the U.K., England and Wales follow best practices on the use of satellite television, notably the dish antenna. The objectives are to protect the environment, to raise awareness among homeowners on the proper positioning of satellite dishes and to help retailers and installers provide better advise and service to families.
It is a must for homeowners to properly select and position a dish in such a way that it has less impact on the environment. The neighborhood and the public will also have to be taken into consideration.
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For many British households, a traditional tea time practice of eating biscuits for an afternoon tea is still common. It is observed when friends come for a quick visit and hunger pangs are felt when dinner is still quite far off. Tea and biscuits became an ideal solution.
Biscuits are baked flour-based products which find their equivalent in American cookies although the latter has a generally softer consistency. Although there is much confusion with these two terms because of their adaption in different contexts, there appears to be a common consensus that biscuits refer to the hard, crisp, dry baked products. This English delicacy has served as the perfect combination for afternoon tea.
The afternoon tea is also referred to as low tea in contrast to high tea which is actually dinner, being in the heavier side. The time set for this is about four or five in the afternoon and never goes beyond seven in the evening. The start of this practice has been attributed to Anna Marie Stanhope, the Duchess of Bedford who was one of Queen Victoria’s ladies in waiting.
This practice was said to have been prompted by the Duchess “sinking feeling” at about four in the afternoon which is believed to have been caused by meager noon meals. It was also said that what started out as a simple sneaking out of bread stuffs and a pot of tea graduated into the afternoon tea which consists of invited guests enjoying small cakes and sandwiches, sweets, and tea.
There are three types of afternoon tea including cream tea, light tea, and full tea. Present afternoon tea observation in England now follows three courses comprised of savouries, scones, and pastries, in such particular order. Tea of course is served throughout.
Buying contact lens online may be a novel thing to many who have been accustomed to the traditional way. An optician is usually consulted who shall provide prescription details after eye examination. It is quite common that the same optician also performs the service of providing the contact lens.
A new trend in buying contact lens has emerged in many parts of the world including the UK. The convenience of online purchase now includes a product that used to be available only in brick and mortar stores. With the power of technology, a good number of online stores are now offering contact lens which are conveniently delivered to customers.
For those who are already using contact lens, prescription details can be found on the box or individual blister packs of contact lens. The optician also easily provides these information since all patients are entitled to this accompanying data wherever they choose to make their purchase of contact lens. Online contact lens stores do not usually ask for a copy of the prescription although they would require patients to enter the prescription details in the order form.
Online contact lens buyers in the UK are advised to choose their online contact lens supplier carefully. The product one orders is usually as good only as the reliability of the company from which the order is being made. Since customers will be going through the online route, the initial thing to look for is a professional-looking website with all required contact numbers provided. A professional supplier will have to be knowledgeable with the product they are offering, even providing advice when necessary. A reliable supplier has no hidden costs and provides all related costs upfront without the need to ask. This goes as well with other information that is required to make an informed decision. To ensure that standards are within UK’s regulation, it would also be best to check where the products are being shipped from. Contact lens that are being shipped from within UK should have passed prescribed product standards.
The issue of costs or pricing is always a question in buying anything. The offered contact lens products must be competitively priced and fortunately these can be found online. Online purchase is very convenient and also provides access to all types while affording cost savings. Ordered contact lenses are delivered to the customer’s doorstep. This is now less the cost of travelling to and back. Also, many online shops offer exceptional promos that effectively lower cost price.
About the Guest Blogger
Nona is a professional researcher and writer. She has recently discovered the convenience of buying her contact lenses online.
There is much interest surrounding the line of succession to the British throne. The people who are included in this line are descendants of Electress Sophia of Hanover who are Protestants. Descendants who are Roman Catholics or have married Roman Catholics have been specifically excluded from the list of eligible successors to the throne.
This arrangement is supported by the Act of Settlement of 1701 which determined the issue of Succession to the Throne of the United Kingdom plus 15 Commonwealth realms. The same line of succession is used for choosing the Counsellors of State and a Regent, if so required as guided by the Regency Act of 1937. It is to be noted that only legitimate descendants are included in the list and legitimized descendants are specifically excluded as well.
Electress Sophia of Hanover died before having her chance to ascend to the throne, thus it was her eldest son, George I who started the reign from her family line. The present head of the British Monarchy is Queen Elizabeth. Prince Charles, the Prince of Wales, as the heir to the British Throne can only be king if and when Queen Elizabeth choose to abdicate, retire or die. The line of succession favors the male gender and only allows female descendants to be heir to the throne, if and only if she has no brother as in the case of Queen Elizabeth.
In the line of succession, the siblings of the heir to the throne fall behind the heir’s children. Thus, a descendant’s place may change, depending on the events related to birth, death, or marriage within the family. There are efforts being exerted to change the manner of succession in relation to gender, marriage to Roman Catholics, and sovereign’s consent to royal marriage.
Giving a name to a baby is a major concern of parents. There are however names that are particularly famous in UK. People’s first names are important but most parents name their babies according to traditions prevailing in the country or according to popularity.
In the UK , a recent list of favorite names for boys and girls contain fairly consistent entries. The top ten boys’ name consist of Oliver, Jack, Harry, Charles, James, Joshua, Alfie, Thomas, Jacob, and Ethan. The top ten girls’ names include Lily, Emily, Isabella, Sophia, Isabelle, Sophie, Olivia, Ava, Chloe, and Isla.
Traditional names usually follow names or members of the royal family, names of ancestors, and names of famous personalities. It would be of great interest to know that choosing baby names is one of the major causes of arguments between spouses in UK. The coming of a new child is admittedly an exciting phase in the life of couples but it can also be one of the most stressful. Choosing a name can add to the stress knowing that the chosen name will be carried by the child for the rest of his or her life.
Another interesting finding about UK parents is that a considerable percentage actually regrets the choice of names they have done for their children. The recently announced pregnancy of the Duchess of Cambridge has already led many to wonder about the possible name of the future heir to the throne. Will the royal couple go for traditional or follow trends such as those observed in the US that appear to favor characters of Greek mythology?